The examination of a test specimen by the naked eye or under low magnification is used to reveal the macroscopic features of metallic materials and welded joints. the surfaces to be examined shall be grinded, polished and, where appropriate, etched. Their observation allows to reveal the crystalline structure, establish the fibers orientation due to deformation processes and detect the presence of defects
A particular technique used for the macrostructural evaluation of the metallic materials is the macrographic examination by sulfur prints also known as “ Baumman’s method “.
- ASTM E381
- ASTM E340
- NF A 05-152
- ASME BPVC.IX QW-193.1.3
- ISO 17639
AWS D1.1/D1.1M § 6.23.2 + ASTM E340
- ASME BPVC.IX QW-184; ASME BPVC.IX QW-183
- ASME BPVC.IX QB-180; ASME BPVC.IX QW-192 (Stud Weld Test)
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